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Art Nouveau stained glass on archive photographs from the collection of the Museum of Applied Arts, Budapest

ABRIDGED EDITION OF THE HUNGARIAN ARTICLE

INTRODUCTION – THE WORLD ART NOUVEAU DAY IN 2020

World Art Nouveau Day (WAND), a Hungarian initiative, has been celebrated since 2013 on the 10th of June commemorating the death of outstanding Art Nouveau architects, Antoni Gaudí and Ödön Lechner. Due to the current pandemic situation instead of live programs and guided tours, we celebrate Art Nouveau online.

The Réseau Art Nouveau Network (RANN) – acknowledging and approving the WAND as an official program of the Network - designates a main topic for the WAND each year, which is “Art Nouveau stained glass” in 2020. Recognizing the current global situation, the RANN specified another topic for their online photo contest: “My Art Nouveau Archive”.

The Budapest Museum of Applied Arts, combining the two topics above, prepared an online exhibition for the 2020 WAND. Publishing the related material from the collection we would like to draw attention to the fascinating Art Nouveau stained glass available on archive photographs. Amongst them there are exhibition photos from the fin de siècle, where the stained glass can be part of an interior, window or decorative element of furniture. Often these archive photos are the only sources since the artworks themselves vanished or disappeared. Despite their black and white color, the photographs imply the rich colors of the original and testify the characteristics of different endeavours of Art Nouveau. The way they fit into the interiors is a proof of the spirit of Gesamtkunstwerk as well.

Excellent Hungarian manufactories worked on the execution of Art Nouveau stained glass designs such as Ede Kratzmann, István Csongrádi Forgó, Miksa Róth, Gida Waltherr, Károly Majoros (Mayböhm) and many others). Stained glass was often designed by the manufactory or outstanding Hungarian artists of the era, like the versatile artist Pál Horti or the renowned painter-applied artist József Rippl-Rónai.

The main characteristic of the stained-glass compositions is determined by the transparency of glass and how it effects the light passing through, increasing or decreasing the colors. Different textures and inventions from abroad (e.g. opalescent glass) can also highlight parts of it, while the lead rails create sharp contrast to the glass.

The following compilation of archive photographs is enriched by architectural photographs, designs and stained-glass windows from the collection.

INTERIORS

Andrássy Dining Room

Dining room in the Andrássy Mansion, Tiszadob, 1898 (photo taken around 1912), design by József Rippl-Rónai, inv.no. FLT 4924The Andrássy dining room, as the first Hungarian Art Nouveau interior is a real piece of Gesamtkunstwerk and an emblematic piece of the Hungarian applied art history. It was originally designed for and set up in the Andrássy palace next to the Danube in Budapest, later the whole furnishing was moved to the Andrássy mansion of Tiszadob. The entire furniture and equipment were designed by József Rippl-Rónai. According to Rippl-Rónai’s design Miksa Róth executed the glassworks, the Zsolnay factory the tableware, Endre Thék the furniture, so the executors were the best craftsmen in Hungary. The glass ceiling (which presumably had an artificial lighting from above) was executed by Friedrich Zitzmann of Wiesbaden.

Interior photograph of the glass ceiling of the Andrássy dining room, Tiszadob, 1898 (photo taken around 1912), design by József Rippl-Rónai, executed by Friedrich Zitzmann, inv.no. FLT 1917The set was presented at the 1898 Christmas exhibition of the Association of Applied Arts, where the golden medal was gained by Miksa Róth. This caused the first big public debate in Hungary pointing out the different reputation of artists and craftsmen. The archive photographs shown here were shooted in the Tiszadob Andrássy mansion around 1912.

Bedő House

Furnishing for the hall of the Bedő-house, 1903, design by Emil Vidor, inv.no. FLT 6725Emil Vidor designed Béla Bedő’s house in downtown Budapest in 1903. The stained-glass windows were executed by Márkus Herzl L. The forms and bold lineation of stained glass were inspired by the French-Belgian Art Nouveau.

 

 
 

Villa Schiffer

Dining corner in the Villa Schiffer, 1912, design by József Vágó, inv.no. MLT 2352Today the original appearance and splendour of the Villa Schiffer isBalcony pillar in Villa Schiffer, 1912, design by József Vágó, photograph inv.no. VLT 391.1.6 known only by the archive photographs of the interior. The building, modest from outside, designed by József Vágó, is connected to the Viennese Sezession. Part of the architect’s artistic imagination included the furnishing design as well. The stained glass of the first floor dining room has perished, but the balcony column covered with Zsolnay tiles (see the silhouette through the stained glass window) still exists. The windows were mostly replaced or survived in fragments. The stained glass of the entrance hall is partly original. The monumental stained-glass window of the hall was designed by Károly Kernstok and was fully replaced – the original colors can be deduced from the design and shades of archive photographs. The decoration program of the building is parallel to the Villa Darvas-La Roche in Oradea, also designed by Vágó.

CHRISTMAS EXHIBITIONS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF APPLIED ARTS

Salon presented at the Christmas exhibition of the Association of Applied Arts, 1899, design by Frigyes Spiegel, inv.no. FLT 4806The Christmas exhibitions of the Association of Applied Arts presented the greatest selection of Hungarian applied arts at the end of each year. The series of interiors gave a glimpse into the ideal home of that time and often the only reference for artworks, which no longer exist. The details of the rooms (furniture, textile, wallpaper, stained glass and further equipment) are proof of the endeavour for Gesamtkunstwerk.

 

HUNGARIAN GLASS MANUFACTORIES

Miksa Róth

Advertisement card of Miksa Róth, ca. 1900, inv.no. MLT 1474The glass works of theStained glass window at the Christmas exhibition of the Association of Applied Arts, 1898, design and executed by Miksa Róth, inv.no. FLT 1946 most significant public and private buildings at the turn of the century were executed by the workshop of Miksa Róth. After his study tours abroad, he established the workshop in 1884 and became an Imperial and Royal Manufacturer in 1899, which title is indicated on his advertisement card in 1900. Róth professionally used high quality glass materials (e.g. Tiffany) and the use of textured (e.g., rippelnglas).

He placed neutral (but due to the textured material not transparent) glass next to the colorful parts, highlighting and emphasizing the parts imitating marble and semi-precious stones). Róth paid careful attention to the realistic depiction of nature, flora and fauna by using glass pieces with different surface shades.

Gida Waltherr

Stained glass window, design (presumably) by Pál Horti, executed by Gida Waltherr, inv.no. FLT 2790 Window niche of parlour at the 2nd Interior design exhibtion of the Association of the Applied Arts, 1912, design by Miklós Menyhért, window executed by Gida Waltherr, inv.no. FLT 4794Gida Waltherr’s glass manufactory also gained significant commissions (for churches, for the Parliament or the City Hall of Debrecen) which also appeared in his advertisements as a list of references. He presented at the 2nd Exhibition of Interiors Design organized by the Association of Applied Arts in 1912.


 
STAINED GLASS DESIGNS BY APPLIED ARTISTS

József Rippl-Rónai

József Rippl-Rónai’s picturesque vision appeared also on his designs for applied artworks. In the 1910’s he negotiated with the director of the Museum of Applied Arts, but finally, his designs for staircase windows have not been executed due to financial reason and the outbreak of World War I). Rippl-Rónai designed windows for the telephone booth in the erstwhile Japanese Coffee House (executed by Miksa Róth), which luckily survived and now part of the collection of the Museum of Applied Arts.

Design for staircase window in the Museum of Aplied Arts by József Rippl-Rónai, ca. 1915, inv.no. FLT 21261     Pair of windows from the telephone booth in the erstwhile Japanese Coffee House, ca. 1900, design by József Rippl-Rónai, executed by Miksa Róth, inv.no. FLT 18142    Window design by József Rippl-Rónai, inv.no. FLT 21273    

Pál Horti

Versatile Hungarian designer of the fin de siѐcle, Pál Horti, often presented his artworks at the Christmas exhibition of the Association of Applied Arts. His stained-glass window designs are kept by the Archives of the Museum. Comparing these designs by the archive photographs of the executed window and examining their colors (light purple, green and amber) give an insight to fashionable colors of the era. A dining room designed by Pál Horti was presented at the Christmas exhibition of the Association of Applied Arts in 1901 and at the Turin International Applied Art exhibition next year. Determining part of the interior is the motif of the stained glass window. 

   Stained glass window presented at the Christmas exhibition of the Association of Applied Arts, 1900, design by Pál Horti, executed by Gida Waltherr, inv.no. FLT 2724   Dining room presented at the Christmas exhibition of the Association of Applied Arts, 1901, design by Pál Horti, FLT 4746   Design for stained glass window by Pál Horti, 1899, KRTF 34   Design for stained glass window by Pál Horti, 1900, inv.no. KRTF 32

Géza Maróti (Rintel)

Model for stained glass ceiling, design by Géza Maróti (Rintel), executed by Miksa Róth, 1913, inv.no. 61.265.1Renowned Hungarian artist Géza Maróti (Rintel) was commissioned to design the glass ceiling and glass curtain of the Teatro Nacional in Mexico City. Maróti used a similar composition later on the monument for Queen Elizabeth (the figure of Apollo here replaced with the Hungarian crown). The model of the glass dome is in the collection of the Museum of Applied Arts.


 
STAINED GLASS ON FURNITURE

Stained glass can be a decorative element of furniture amongst intarsia, exotic woods.

Alajos Polgár

Cupboard presented at the Christmas exhibition of the Association of Applied Arts, 1899, design by Alajos Polgár, inv.no. FLT 3660A cupboard designed by Alajos Polgár was presented at the Christmas exhibition of the Association of Applied Arts in 1899. The form was inspired by French-Belgian Art Nouveau and was not unanimously appreciated by the contemporary critics.

Pál Horti

Rare occurrence, if a furniture shown on archive photographs remains intact for posterity. Such is the bookcase of drawing room designed by Pál Horti and executed by Imre Mahunka. The bookcase was presented at the 1900 Christmas exhibition, and critics appreciatively about it.

Drawing room presented at the Christmas exhibition of the Association of Applied Arts, 1900, design by Pál Horti, executed by Imre Mahunka, inv.no. FLT 4749   Bookcase – part of drawing room, 1900, design by Pál Horti, executed by Imre Mahunka, inv.no. 60.502.1   

TRUE COLORS OF ART NOUVEAU STAINED GLASS – STAINED GLASS FROM THE COLLECTION

The original color designs and the archive black and white photographs make us only suggest the real colors of Art Nouveau stained glass. At the end of the thematic selection some artwork from the collection give an insight to the variety and splendour of colors.

Garden (stained glass), James Guthrie & Andrew Wells Ltd., Glasgow, before 1904, inv.no. 11970  Az egykori Japán Kávéház telefonfülkéjének üvegablak-párja, 1910 körül, tervezte Rippl-Rónai József, készítette Róth Miksa, ltsz. 60.573.1-2  Az egykori Japán Kávéház telefonfülkéjének üvegablak-párja, 1910 körül, tervezte Rippl-Rónai József, készítette Róth Miksa, ltsz. 60.573.1-2  Stained glass window with irises, design by Karl Engelbrecht, executed by Miksa Róth, 1900-1902, inv.no. 65.304.1

Zsuzsa Margittai
Art Historian, Secretary of Research (Budapest Museum of Applied Arts)

Virtual Exhibition:

Click here for the "Colorful stained glass in black and white. Art Nouveau stained glass on archive photographs from the collection of the Budapest Museum of Applied Arts" virtual exhibition.


Title of page when printing:
http://www.imm.hu/en/exhibits/view/540,Sz%C3%ADnes+%C3%BCvegek+fekete-feh%C3%A9rben